The Effect of Biochar, Lime, and Compost on The Properties of Acid Sulphate Soil

Juhrian Juhrian, Fadly H. Yusran, Raihani Wahdah, Bambang J. Priatmadi

Abstract


Making acid sulphate soils as paddy fields is a wise choice because it can prevent the soil from oxidizing which occurs in acidification of the soil. The use of biochar as an amendment to the land has long been known since the discovery of terra preta since 1870 in the Amazon Basin as the Amazon dark earth. Because biochar soil amendments are rich in C-organics, have a buffering capacity and can increase soil acidity, are able to absorb heavy metals, and are able to retain water and nutrients for soil organisms. Meanwhile, lime has also been known as an acid sulphate soil amendment in Rome 2000 years ago to balance the acidity in agricultural land. This has been practiced for centuries until now. Though compost or organic soil can be traced more than 2000 years ago. Soil organic matter (SOM) is formed from the remains of animals and plants. It contains C and many nutrients such as N, P, and K. Based on the description above, the author wants to combine the three ingredients in the review, especially in relation to acid sulphate soils.


Keywords


Biochar, lime, compost, acid sulphate soil.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdurachman, A., Dariah, A., & Mulyani, A. (2005). Strategi dan teknologi pengelolaan lahan kering mendukung pengadaan pangan nasional. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 98.

Adomaitis, T., Staugaitis, G., Mažvila, J., Vaišvila, Z., Arbačiauskas, J., Lubyte, J., Šumskis, D., & Švegžda, A. (2013). Leaching of base cations as affected by a forty-year use of mineral fertilisation. Zemdirbyste, 100(2), 119–126. https://doi.org/10.13080/z-a.2013.100.015

Ah, E. N. I. M., & Nursyamsi, D. (2015). Potensi berbagai bahan organik rawa sebagai sumber biochar Potency of various organic materials from swampland as a source of biochar. Jurnal Balai Penelitian Pertanian Lahan Rawa (Balittra), 1, 776–781. https://doi.org/10.13057/psnmbi/m010417

Alwi, M., Sabiham, S., & Anwar, S. (2010). Pelindian tanah balandean Kalimantan Selatan pada beberapa kondisi potensial redok menggunakan sumber air insitu. Jurnal Tanah Tropika, 83–94.

Alwi, Muhammad. (2014). Prospek Lahan Rawa Pasang Surut untuk Tanaman Padi. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 2007, 45–59.

Anita NK, Cahyo P, W. (2016). Kajian residu biochar sekam padi, kayu dan tempurung kelapa terhadap ketersediaan air pada tanah lempung berliat. Jurnal Tanah Dan Sumberdaya Lahan, 3(1), 253–260.

Annisa, W. (2004). Retensi p oleh oksida besi di tanah sulfat masam setelah reklamasi lahan. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan.

Annisa, W., & Purwanto, B. H. (2010). Retensi P oleh oksida besi di tanah sulfat masam setelah reklamasi lahan. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 4(1), 47–56.

Ar-riza, I., Alwi, M., Tanaman, B., Penelitian, B., Lahan, P., Tanah, K., Penelitian, B., & Lahan, P. (2015). Peningkatan Hasil Padi di Tanah Sulfat Masam melalui Kombinasi Perlakuan Lindi dan Olah Tanah Combination of Leaching Treatment and Soil Tillage. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), 43(2), 105–110.

Arsyad, D. M., Saidi, B. B., & Enrizal. (2014). Pengembangan inovasi pertanian di lahan rawa pasang surut mendukung kedaulatan pangan. Jurnal Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian, 7(4), 169–176.

Asch, F., Becker, M., & Maccarthy, D. (2005). A quick and efficient screen for resistance to iron toxicity in lowland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168, 764–773. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200520540

Asir, L. O., Teknik, A., Lahan, R., Pada, T., & Asir, L. O. (2005). LAHAN BEKAS GALIAN INDUSTRI ( Alternative Rehabilitation Technique on ex-Industrial Land ) plasma sistem tata air kontribusinya terhadap perbaikan lahan-lahan kritis di Indonesia . Ini penanggulangan lahan kritis , hal ini ditandai dengan telah berlangsun. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 113–130.

Atkinson, C., Fitzgerald, J., & Hipps, N. (2010). Potential Mechanisms for Achieving Agricultural Benefits from Biochar Application to Temperate Soils: A Review. Plant and Soil, 337, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0464-5

Audebert, A., & Sahrawat, K. (2000). Mechanisms for Iron Toxicity Tolerance in Lowland Rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23, 1877–1885. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160009382150

Becker, M., & Asch, F. (2005). Iron toxicity in rice - Conditions and management concepts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168(4), 558–573. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200520504

Berek, A. K. (2019). The potential of biochar as an acid soil amendment to support Indonesian food and energy security - A review. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 42(2), 745–759.

Chairunnisya, R. A., Hanum, H., & Hidayat, B. (2017). Aplikasi Bahan Organik dan Biochar untuk Meningkatkan C – Organik, P dan Zn tersedia Pada Tanah Sawah. Jurnal Tanah Dan Iklim, 5(3), 494–499.

Chérif, M., Audebert, A., Fofana, M., & Zouzou, M. (2009). Evaluation of Iron Toxicity on Lowland Irrigated Rice in West Africa. Tropicultura, 27(2), 88–92.

Cork, S., Eadie, L., Mele, P. M., Price, R., & Yule, D. (2012). The relationships between land management practices and soil condition and the quality of ecosystem services delivered from agricultural land in Australia. Book, September, 127.

Cornelissen, G., Pandit, N. R., Taylor, P., Pandit, B. H., Sparrevik, M., & Schmidt, H. P. (2016). Emissions and char quality of flame-curtain “Kon Tiki” kilns for farmer-scale charcoal/biochar production. PLoS ONE, 11(5), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154617

Dalzell, H. ., Biddelstone, A. J., Gray, K. R., & Thuraniranjan, K. (1987). Soil managment: compost production and use in tropical and subtropical environments. Coletin 56 de Suelos de La FAO, 6.6, 134.

Dariah, A., Nurida, neneng laila, & Jubaedah. (2004). Pemanfaatan Pembenah Tanah untuk Pemulihan Tanah Terdegradasi yang Didominasi Fraksi Pasir dan Liat. Litbang Pertanian, 669–676.

Dariah, A., Sutono, S., Nurida, N. L., Hartatik, W., & Pratiwi, E. (2015). Pembenah Tanah untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas Lahan Pertanian. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 9(2), 67–84.

DeLuca, T., Farming, S. G.-O., & 2019, undefined. (2019). Use of Biochar in Organic Farming. Springer, August. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04657-6

Dent, D. (1986). Acid sulphate soils: a baseline for research and development. Acid Sulphate Soils: A Baseline for Research and Development.

Department of Environment and Conservation. (2011). Treatment and management of soils and water in acid sulphate soil landscapes (Issue June). http://www.der.wa.gov.au/images/documents/your-environment/acid-sulphate-soils/guidelines/ass-management-guideline.pdf

Eka Bhakari, H., & Hanum, H. (2013). Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Jerami dan Pupuk SP-36 pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial terhadap Perubahan Ssifat Kimia serta Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oriza sativa L.). 2(1), 2337–6597.

Fink, J. R., Inda, A. V., Tiecher, T., & Barrón, V. (2016). Iron oxides and organic matter on soil phosphorus availability. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia, 40(4), 369–379. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-70542016404023016

Fitzpatrick, R., Grealish, G., Shand, P., Marvanek, S., Thomas, B., Creeper, N., Merry, R., & Raven, M. (2008). Information paper on risk assessment of acid sulphate soil materials in the Currency Creek, Finniss River, Tookayerta Creek and Black Swamp Region, South Australia. Csiro, January, 1–13.

Gao, Si, & Deluca, T. (2016). Influence of biochar on soil nutrient transformations, nutrient leaching, and crop yield. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, 4, 150. https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.2016.04.00150

Gao, Si, & Deluca, T. (2018). Wood biochar impacts soil phosphorus dynamics and microbial communities in organically-managed croplands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.09.002

Gao, Si, Hoffman-Krull, K., & Deluca, T. (2017). Soil biochemical properties and crop productivity following application of locally produced biochar at organic farms on Waldron Island, WA. Biogeochemistry, 136, 31–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-017-0379-9

Gao, Suduan, Tanji, K., Scardaci, S., & Chow, A. (2002). Comparison of Redox Indicators in a Paddy Soil during Rice-Growing Season. Soil Science Society of America Journal - SSSAJ, 66. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.0805

Gaviria, J., Schmittou, H., & Grover, J. (1986). Acid sulphate soils: Identification, formation and implications for aquaculture. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 1, 99–109.

Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., & Zech, W. (2002). Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35(4), 219–230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-002-0466-4

Goenadi, L. P. S. dan D. H. (2010). Pemanfaatan bio-char sebagai pembawa mikroba untuk pemantap agregat tanah Ultisol dari Taman Bogo-Lampung. Jurnal Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan, 78(2), 52–60.

Goldin, A. (1976). ScholarWorks at University of Montana Effects of limestone soils on plant distribution in the Garnet Mountains , Montana Let us know how access to this document benefits you . Dissertations and Profesional Papers.

Gomez, A. (2016). The Soil . Physical , Chemical and Biological Properties. Journal of Tropical Soils, 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46116-8

Goulding, K. W. T. (2016). Soil acidification and the importance of liming agricultural soils with particular reference to the United Kingdom. Soil Use and Management, 32(3), 390–399. https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12270

H DeLuca, T. (2016). Influence of Biochar on Soil Nutrient Transformations, Nutrient Leaching, and Crop Yield. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, 4(5). https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.2016.04.00150

Hagemann, N., Subdiaga, E., Orsetti, S., De la Rosa, J., Knicker, H., Schmidt, H.-P., Kappler, A., & Behrens, S. (2018). Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure. Science of The Total Environment, 613–614, 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.161

Hartatik, W. (2010). Karakteristik dan Teknologi Pengolahan Lahan Sulfat Masam Mendukung Pertanian Ramah Lingkungan. Jurnal Balitbangta, 1986.

Hartatik, W., Wibowo, H., & Purwani, J. (2015). Aplikasi Biochar dan Tithoganic dalam Peningkatan Produktivitas Kedelai (Glycine max L.) pada Typic Kanhapludults di Lampung Timur. Jurnal Tanah Dan Iklim, 39(1), 51–62. https://doi.org/10.2017/jti.v39i1.6220

Haryono, B. (2013). Lahan Rawa Penelitian dan Pengembangan (Noor/Balittra (ed.); 13th ed.).

Holland, J. E., Bennett, A. E., Newton, A. C., White, P. J., McKenzie, B. M., George, T. S., Pakeman, R. J., Bailey, J. S., Fornara, D. A., & Hayes, R. C. (2018). Liming impacts on soils, crops and biodiversity in the UK: A review. Science of the Total Environment, 610–611(August), 316–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.020

Holland, J. E., White, P. J., Glendining, M. J., Goulding, K. W. T., & McGrath, S. P. (2019). Yield responses of arable crops to liming – An evaluation of relationships between yields and soil pH from a long-term liming experiment. European Journal of Agronomy, 105(May), 176–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2019.02.016

Husna, N. (2014). Pengelolaan Bahan Organik Di Tanah Sulfat Masam Organic Matter Mangement in Acid Sulphate Soil. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Lahan Suboptimal, 1(13), 979–587.

Ibrahim, M., Ghanem, F., Al-Salameen, A., & Al-Fawwaz, A. (2019). The Estimation of Soil Organic Matter Variation in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Using Remote Sensing Data. International Journal of Geosciences, 10(05), 576–588. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2019.105033

Jian Feng Ma, Taketa, S., & Zhen Ming Yang. (2000). Aluminum tolerance genes on the short arm of chromosome 3R are linked to organic acid release in triticale. Plant Physiology, 122(3), 687–694. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.122.3.687

Kochian, L. V. (1995). Cellular mechanisms of aluminum toxicity and resistance in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 46(0066), 237–260. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.46.060195.001321

Koesrini, ., William, E., & Nursyamsi, D. (2015). Application of Lime and Adaptable Variety to Increase Tomato Productivity at Potential Acid Sulphate Soil. Journal of Tropical Soils, 19(2), 59–66. https://doi.org/10.5400/jts.2014.v19i2.59-66

Laird, D. A. (2008). The charcoal vision: A win-win-win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality. Agronomy Journal, 100(1), 178–181. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2007.0161

Larsen, P. B., Degenhardt, J., Tai, C. Y., Stenzler, L. M., Hovvell, S. H., & Kochian, L. V. (1998). Aluminum-resistant arabidopsis mutants that exhibit altered patterns of aluminum accumulation and organic acid release from roots. Plant Physiology, 117(1), 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/1369-5266(88)80022-0

Las, I., Subagyono, K., & Setiyanto, A. P. (2006). Isu dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Revitalisasi Pertanian. Pertanian, 25(3).

Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., & Rondon, M. (2006). Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems - A review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(2), 403–427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5

Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2012). Biochar for environmental management: An introduction. In Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781849770552

Lehmann, J., & Rondon, M. (2006). Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics. Book, 517–529. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420017113.ch36

Lehmann, J., Silva Junior, J., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., & Glaser, B. (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: Fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil, 249, 343–357. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022833116184

Liang, B., Lehmann, J., Solomon, D., Kinyangi, J., Grossman, J., O’Neill, B., Skjemstad, J. O., Thies, J., Luizão, F. J., Petersen, J., & Neves, E. G. (2006). Black Carbon Increases Cation Exchange Capacity in Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(5), 1719–1730. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0383

Litbang, B., Penelitian, B., Lahan, P., Karet, J. K., & Utara, L. (2013). Dinamika Besi pada Tanah Sulfat Masam yang Ditanami Padi. Jurnal Balai Penelitian Pertanian Lahan Rawa (Balittra), 67–75.

Litvinovich, A., Pavlova, O., Lavrishchev, A., Bure, V., & Saljnikov, E. (2017). Huminių rūgščių ir humino transformacijų Umbric Albeluvisol Abruptic empirinis modelis, priklausomai nuo dirvožemio kalkinimo. Zemdirbyste, 104(2), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.13080/z-a.2017.104.015

Ljung Björklund, K., Maley, F., Cook, A., & Weinstein, P. (2009). Acid sulphate soils and human health—A Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Environment International, 35, 1234–1242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2009.07.002

Ljung, K., Maley, F., & Cook, A. (2010). Canal estate development in an acid sulphate soil-implications for human metal exposure. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97(2), 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.05.003

Majerus, V., Bertin, P., & Lutts, S. (2007). Effects of iron toxicity on osmotic potential, osmolytes and polyamines concentration in the African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud). Plant Science - PLANT SCI, 173, 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.04.003

Mardi dan Pheng S.K. (2007). Management of Acid Sulphate Soils for Sustainable Rice Cultivation in Malaysia.

Masulili, A. (2010). Rice Husk Biochar for Rice Based Cropping System in Acid Soil 1 . The Characteristics of Rice Husk Biochar and Its Influence on the Properties of Acid Sulphate Soils and Rice Growth in West Kalimantan , Indonesia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 39–47.

Masulili, A. (2015). Pengelolaan lahan sulfat masam untuk pengembangan pertanian. Jurnal Agrosans, 12, 1–13.

Mcgrath, S., Chaudri, A., & Giller, K. (1995). Long-Term Effects of Metals in Sewage Sludge on Soils, Microorganisms and Plants. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 14, 94–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01569890

Michael, P. S. (2015). Ecological Impacts and Management of Acid Sulphate Soil : A Review. Journal Asian: Water, Environment and Pollution, March.

Murphy, B. W. (2014). Soil Organic Matter and Soil Function – Review of the Literature and Underlying Data. Journal of Environmental Quality, May.

Nordmyr, L., Astrom, M., & Peltola, P. (2008). Metal pollution of estuarine sediments caused by leaching of acid sulphate soils. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 76, 141–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.07.002

Nugraha, Y., & Rumanti, A. (2017). Perakitan Varietas Padi Toleran Keracunan Besi Breeding for Rice Variety Tolerant to Iron Toxicity. Jurnal Iptek Tanaman Pangan, 12(1), 9–24.

Ogawa, M., & Okimori, Y. (2010). Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48(6–7), 489–500. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR10006

Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y., & Takahashi, F. (2006). Carbon Sequestration by Carbonization of Biomass and Forestation: Three Case Studies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-9007-4

Okimori, Y., Ogawa, M., & Takahashi, F. (2003). Potential of CO2 emission reductions by carbonizing biomass waste from industrial tree plantation in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 8, 261–280. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MITI.0000005643.79908.5a

Orellana, F. De, & International, P. (2012). Conquistadors , cannibals and climate change A brief history of biochar. Journal of Conservation, June.

Pandit, N. R., Mulder, J., Hale, S. E., Schmidt, H. P., & Cornelissen, G. (2017). Biochar from “Kon Tiki” flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry. PLoS ONE, 12(4), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176378

Panhwar, Q., Naher, U., Shamshuddin, J., Othman, R., & Hakeem, K. (2016). Management of Acid Sulphate Soils for Sustainable Rice Cultivation in Malaysia. In Book. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-34451-5_4

Panhwar, Q., Othman, R., Naher, U., A Rahman, Z., Razi, M. I., & Shamshuddin, J. (2013). Effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and oxalic acid on phosphate uptake from different P fractions and growth improvement of aerobic rice using 32P technique. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 7, 1131–1140.

Pavlova, O., Litvinovich, A., Lavrishchev, A., Bure, V., & Saljnikov, E. (2019). Eluvial losses of Ca from Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic produced by different doses of lime: Column experiment. Zemljiste i Biljka, 68(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.5937/zembilj1901001p

Poch, R., Thomas, B., Fitzpatrick, R., & Merry, R. (2009). Micromorphological evidence for mineral weathering pathways in a coastal acid sulphate soil sequence with Mediterranean-type climate, South Australia. Soil Research, 47. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR07015

Quiroga, M. J., Olego, M. Á., Sánchez-García, M., Medina, J. E., Visconti, F., Coque, J. J. R., & Jimeno, J. E. G. (2017). Effects of liming on soil properties, leaf tissue cation composition and grape yield in a moderately acid vineyard soil. Influence on must and wine quality. Oeno One, 51(4), 342–362. https://doi.org/10.20870/oeno-one.2017.51.4.2039

Rina, Y., & Haris, D. (2013). Zona kesesuaian lahan rawa pasang surut berbasis keunggulan kompetitif komoditas. Jurnal Balai Penelitian Pertanian Lahan Rawa (Balittra), 10(1), 103–117.

Roos, M., & Astrom, M. (2005). Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland. Agricultural and Food Science - AGR FOOD SCI, 14, 24–33. https://doi.org/10.2137/1459606054224075

Safirzadeh, S., Chorom, M., & Enayatizamir, N. (2019). Effect of phosphate solubilising bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae) on phosphorus uptake efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Soil Research, 57. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR18128

Sahrawat, K. (2005). Iron Toxicity in Wetland Rice and the Role of Other Nutrients. Journal of Plant Nutrition - J PLANT NUTR, 27, 1471–1504. https://doi.org/10.1081/PLN-200025869

Saleh, M. (2017). Pengujian Formulasi Biofertilizer pada Tanaman Padi di Lahan Pasang Surut. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Lahan Basah, 916–920.

Sarwani, M, Shamshuddin, J., Ishak, C., & Husni, H. (2005). Changes in iron-poor acid sulphate soil upon submergence. Geoderma, 131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.03.006

Sarwani, Muhrizal. (2013). Karakteristik Dan Potensi Lahan Sub Optimal Untuk Pengembangan Pertanian Di Indonesia. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v7i1.6429

Setiawati, E., Prijono, S., Mardiana, D., Annisa, W., & . S. (2019). Effects of Durian Wood Waste Biochar on Acid Sulphate Soil Properties and Rice Yield in Indonesia. Journal of Agronomy, 18(2), 71–79. https://doi.org/10.3923/ja.2019.71.79

Shamshuddin, J., Elisa, A. A., Shazana, M. A. R. S., & Fauziah, I. C. (2013). Rice defense mechanisms against the presence of excess amount of Al3+ and Fe2+ in the water. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 7(3), 314–320.

Shazana, M. A. R., Shamshuddin, J., Fauziah, C. I., Panhwar, Q. A., & Naher, U. A. (2014). Effects of applying ground basalt with or without organic fertilizer on the fertility of an acid sulphate soil and growth of rice. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, 18, 87–102.

Sohi, S., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., & Bol, R. (2010). A Review of Biochar and Its Use and Function in Soil. Advances in Agronomy, 105, 47–82.

Spokas, K. A., Cantrell, K. B., Novak, J. M., Archer, D. W., Ippolito, J. A., Collins, H. P., Boateng, A. A., Lima, I. M., Lamb, M. C., McAloon, A. J., Lentz, R. D., & Nichols, K. A. (2012). Biochar: A Synthesis of Its Agronomic Impact beyond Carbon Sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41(4), 973–989. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0069

Steiner, C. (2009). Soil Charcoal Amendements Maintain Soil Fertility and Establish a Carmon Sink-Research and Prospects. Journal Soil Ecology Reserch Developments, 125(June), 438–452.

Sujana, I. P. (2013). Peningkatan Produksi Padi pada Tanah Masam dan Upaya Mengatasi Kegagalan Panen dengan Pemberian biochar (Makalah ini disampaikan pada Seminar Nasional / Tema :Reorientasi Riset untuk Mengoptimalkan Produksi dan Rantai Nilai Komoditas Pertanian / 13 April. Siminar Nasional: Reorentasi Riset Untuk Mengoptimalkan Produksi Dan Rantai Nilai Komoditas Pertanian, April.

Sukartono, Utomo, W. H., Kusuma, Z., & Nugroho, W. H. (2011). Soil fertility status, nutrient uptake, and maize (Zea mays L.) yield following biochar and cattle manure application on sandy soils of Lombok, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 49, 47–52.

Sulistiyani, D., Imanudin, M., & Napoleon, A. (2014). PENILAIAN KUALITAS TANAH PADA LAHAN RAWA PASANG SURUT UNTUK TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L) DI DESA BANYU URIP KECAMATAN TANJUNG. , Palembang 16-17 …, September, 812–820. http://eprints.unsri.ac.id/6637/

Suriadikarta, D. (2005). Pengelolaan lahan sulfat masam untuk usaha pertanian. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 24(98), 1–13. http://pustaka.litbang.pertanian.go.id/publikasi/p3241055.pdf

Suryana, S. dan. (2011). Perbaikan Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Tanah Sawah Tadah Hujan Melalui Pemberian Biochar dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Produktivitas Lahan. Jurnal Tanah Dan Iklim, 1–5.

Takita, E., Koyama, H., & Hara, T. (1999). Organic acid metabolism in aluminum-phosphate utilizing cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plant and Cell Physiology, 40(5), 489–495. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a029569

UNICEF. (2013). Laporan Tahunan Kementrian Pertanian 2017. Buletin Jendela Data Dan Informasi Kesehatan, 29–33.

USDA: (2010). Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Book.

USDA. (1999). Liming To Improve Soil Quality in Acid Soils. Soil Quality - Agronomy Technical Note No. 8. Book, 8, 1–6. http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/management/files/sq_atn_8.pdf%5Cnhttp://workspace.bananahill.net/library/Soil/Acidification/1999_USDA_Liming_acid_soils.pdf

USDA. (2014a). Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed. Change, 12, 327–328.

USDA. (2014b). Keys to soil taxonomy. Soil Conservation Service, 12, 410. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2005.854494

Warda. (2001). Painting the Rice Red : Iron Toxicity in the Lowlands. Physiologist, 29–37.

Wayne, E. (2012). Conquistadors , cannibals and climate change A brief history of biochar. Journal of Conservation, June, 5.

Wilson, B. (2005). Elevations of sulfurous layers in acid sulphate soils: What do they indicate about sea levels during the Holocene in eastern Australia? Catena, 62, 45–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2005.02.002

Yuni Aulia Agustina, N. S. P. dan B. J. P. (2016). Pengaruh Biochar Dari Limbah Sekam Padi Dan Tandan Kelapa Sawit Terhadap Sifat Kimia Tanah Sulfat Masam. Jurnal Pertanian, 1–15.

Zheng, S. J., Ma, J. F., & Matsumoto, H. (1998). High aluminum resistance in buckwheat: I. Al-induced specific secretion of oxalic acid from root tips. Plant Physiology, 117(3), 745–751. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.117.3.745




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20527/jwem.v8i2.249

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License 
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ISSN: 2354-5844 (print version) and 2477-5223 (electronic version). joomla site stats View My Stats