The Linkage of El Niño-induced Peat Fires and Its Relation to Current Haze Condition in Central Kalimantan

Nina Yulianti, Kitso Kusin, Daisuke Naito, Masahiro Kawasaki, Osamu Kozan, Kurniawan Eko Susatyo

Abstract


fires in Indonesia. About thirty percent of the total fires are spread in Central Kalimantan Province. Symptoms of climate change in the form of increasingly frequent weather and extreme climate phenomena support the severity of forest and land fires which results in increased release of air pollution gases. In 2015, the peak fire months had emitted a high concentration of air pollutant gasses and causes hazardous air pollution. This study aims to investigate the latest severe fire occurrence and haze conditions in Central Kalimantan. Hotspot data was from 2006 to 2017, visibility data were from four times of El Niño event, Particle Matter Size 10 (PM 10) data and Pollution Standard Index (PSI) was from very strong El Niño in 2015 comparison to La Niña in 2016/2017. The results showed that the top incidents occurred not only very strong in 2015 but also weak El Niño in 2006. The most of dense hotspots density in the last twelve years (> 50% of fires in the area) found in peatlands in Pulang Pisau, Palangka Raya and Kapuas.  Palangka Raya's case, dangerous of APSI with PM10 concentrations of more than 500 µg m-3 occurred for 2 (two) months, from the end of August to the early of November 2015. The maximum peak concentration of PM10 is as high as 3000 μg m-3, which is higher than other fire years. Based on the data obtained, the haze was blanketed Palangka Raya was getting thicker at the end of October. As a result, visibility is decreasingly limited, only around 200 to 900 m during the peak season and air pollution-related-peat fire. Thus, this severe condition could rose multiple effects, which will exacerbate climate change, environmental sustainability and the livelihoods of thousands of peoples.


Keywords


Air Pollution Standard Index; climate change; fires; haze; peatland

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wetlands. 2004. Maps of Area of Peatlands Distribution and Carbon Content in Kalimantan. Wetlands International- Indonesia Programme, Bogor.

Putra E. I. and H. Hayasaka. 2011. The Effect of the Precipitation Pattern of the Dry Season on Peat Fire Occurrence in the Mega Rice Project Area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.Tropics 19: 145-156.

Yulianti, N., Hayasaka, H. 2013. Recent active fire under El Niño conditions in Kalimantan, Indonesia. American Journal of Plants Science 4: 685-696

Hayasaka, H and Sepriando, A. 2018. Severe Air Pollution Due to Peat Fires During 2015 Super El Niño in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Vadrevu K., Ohara T., Justice C. (eds) Land-Atmospheric Research Applications in South and Southeast Asia. Springer Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry. Springer, Cham.

Yulianti, N., H. Hayasaka, A. Usup. 2014. Biomass fuels properties from burned peatland. Jurnal AGRI PEAT 15: 10-16.

Putra, E. I., H. Hayasaka, H. Takahashi and A. Usup. 2008. Recent Peat Fire Activity in the Mega Rice Project Area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Disaster Research 3: 334-341.

Barbara, B., Yulianti, N., Firdara, EK. 2015. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) Impact on Land and Forest Fire in the province of Central Kalimantan. J-SEA (Journal Socio Economics Agricultural) 10:1-13 [in Bahasa]

Yulianti, N. 2018. Introduction of Fire Disaster and Transboundary Haze (Case Studi Ex – Mega Rice Project. IPB Press. Bogor [in Bahasa]

Conedera, M., Tinner, W. 2000. The interaction between Forest Fire and Human Activity in Southern Switzerland. In: Innes, J.L., Beniston, M., Verstraete, M. M (eds). 2000. Biomass Burning and Its Inter-relationship with the Climate System. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands.

Caldararo,N. 2002. Human ecological intervention and the role of forest fires in human ecology. The Science of the Total Environment 292: 141–165

Taylor, D. 2010. Biomass burning, humans and climate change in Southeast Asia Biodivers Conserv. 19:1025–1042. DOI 10.1007/s10531-009-9756-6

Scott, A. C., Bowman, D. J. M. S., Bond, W. J., Pyne, S. J., and Alexander, M. 2014. Fire on Earth: An introduction. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

MacDonald, K. 2017. The use of fire and human distribution. TEMPERATURE 4:153–165 https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2017.1284637

Syphard AD, Sheehan T, Rustigian- Romsos H, Ferschweiler K. 2018. Mapping future fire probability under climate change: Does vegetation matter? PLoS ONE 13 (8): e0201680. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201680

Struzik, E. 2017. Firestorm: How Wildfire Will Shape Our Future. Island Press.

Harvey, B.J. 2016. Human-caused climate change is now a key driver of forest fire activity in the western United States. PNAS. 113: 11649–11650

Yulianti, N., Hayasaka, H., and Usup, A. 2012. Recent forest and peat fire trends in Indonesia, the latest decade by MODIS hotspot data. Global Environmental Research 16: 105-116.

Hayasaka H., Noguchi I., Putra E.I., Yulianti N. and Vadrevu K., 2014. Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Environmental Pollution 195: 257–266.

Stockwell, C. E., Jayarathne, T., Cochrane, M. A., Ryan, K. C., Putra, E. I., Saharjo, B. H., Nurhayati, A. D., Albar, I., Blake, D. R., Simpson, I. J., Stone, E. A., and Yokelson, R. J.. 2016. Field measurements of trace gases and aerosols emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Ninõ, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16: 11711–11732, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11711- 201.

Huijnen, V., Wooster, M.J., Kaiser, J.W., Gaveau, D.L.A., Flemming, J., Parrington, M., Inness, A., Murdiyarso, D., Main, B. & van Weel, M. (2016) Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997. Scientific Reports, 6:1–9.

Hooijer, A., M. Silvius, H. Wosten, S. Page. 206 “Peat- CO2: Assessment of CO2 Emission from Drained Peat- lands in SE Asia,” Delft Hydraulics Report Q3943.

Heil, A., B. Langmann and E. Aldrian. 2006. Indonesian peat and vegetation fire emissions: study on factors influencing large-scale smoke haze pollution using a regional atmospheric chemistry model. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12: 113-133.

Kim, P. S., Jacob, DJ, Mickley, LJ, Koplitz, S.N, Marlier, ME,. DeFries, RS, Myers, SS., Chew, B.N, Mao, YH. 2015. Sensitivity of population smoke exposure to fire locations in Equatorial Asia. Atmospheric Environment 102: 11-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.045

Van Mead, N. 2017. Pant by numbers: the cities with the most dangerous air, listed. The Guardian, February 13, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/datablog/2017/feb/13/most-polluted-cities-world-listed-region (accessed 10 March 2017).

Limin, S, H, S. Alim, Y. Rogath, Yarden, Fransiscus A.H., Kusin, K., Purnomo, A., Patih R., Restu,A., Ermiasi, Y., Erisa I.S., and Haga. 2008. The TSA concept relevant to supporting REDD program implementation. In: Proceeding Peatland development: wise use and impact management. The International Symposium and Workshop on tropical Peatland, Kuching, Malaysia.

Moreno, L., Maria-Emilia Jiménez, Héctor Aguilera, Patricia Jiménez and Almudena de la Losa. 2010. The 2009 smouldering peat fire in Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Spain). Fire Technology 2: 1-10.

Usup, A. 2004. Peat Fire Characteristics in Central Kalimantan. Dissertation for Ph.D degree in Hokkaido University.

Singh, R.M., Kim,H., Kamide, M., Sharma, t. 2009. Biobriquettes an alternative fuel for sustainable development. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 10: 121-127.

Belkin, H.E., Tewalt, S.J.,Hower, J.C., Stucker, J.D., O'Keefe, J.M.K. 2009. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia.International Journal of Coal Geology 77: 260–268.

Damanik, Z. 2015. Kajian Kimia Air gambut pada lahan gambut dengan substrat umur bahan sulfidik. Disertasi. UGM.

Adji FF, Damanik Z, Yulian N, Teguh R,TarunaY, Saman TN, Barbara B. 2017. Explortion on of Peat Swamp Ecosystem in KHG Kahayan - Sebangau as a Restora on Reference Area. Report. UPT. LLG CIMTROP, University of Palangka Raya.

Setiadi, IC, Yulianti, N, Adji FF. 2016. Evaluasi sifat kimia dan sik gambut dari beberapa lokasi di Blok C Eks-PLG Kalimantan. AGRI PEAT19:1-14.

Saharjo, B. H. 2006. Fire behavior in Pelalawan peatland, Riau Province. Biodiversitas Vol.7 No. 1: 90-93.

Page, S. E., Agata Hostilo, Andreas Langner, Kevin Tansey, Florian Siegert, Suwido Limin, and Jack Rieley. Tropical peatland fires in Southeast Asia. In: Mark A. Cochrane. 2009. Tropical Fire Ecology Climate Change, Land use and Ecosystem Dynamics. Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK, 263-287 pp

Rein, G., Natalie Cleaver, Clare Ashton, Paolo Pironi, and José L. Torero. 2008. The severity of smouldering peat fires and damage to the forest soil. Catena 74: 304-309.

Limin, S, H., H. Takahashi, A,Usup, H,Hayasaka, M, Kamiya and N, Murao. 2007b. Impacts of haze in 2002 on social activity and human health in Palangka Raya. Tropics Vol.16, pp 275-282.

Koplitz, S. N., Mickley, L. J., Jacob, D. J., Marlier, M. E., DeFries, R. S., Gaveau, D. L. A., Locatelli, B., Reid, J. S., Xian, P., & Myers, S. S. (2018). Role of the Madden‐Julian Oscillation in the transport of smoke from Sumatra to the Malay Peninsula during severe non‐El Nino haze events. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 6282– 6294. http://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028533




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20527/jwem.v8i2.221

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License 
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ISSN: 2354-5844 (print version) and 2477-5223 (electronic version). joomla site stats View My Stats