Heavy Metals Contents and Histopathological Analysis of Some Organs of Fish Obtained from Payau River, Anggana, Kutai Kartanegara, Indonesia

Sulistyawati Hidayat, Iwan Suyatna, Ahmad Rafii, Ghitarina Ghitarina


The objectives of this study were to determine the heavy metals contents (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) in the body of some freshwater fish and to examine the histopathological changes of some organs.  The fish were obtained from Payau River located in Anggana, Kutai Kartanegara District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.  There were four (4) species examined namely: Glass Fish (Chanda sp), Croaker (Micropogenias undulatus), Lais (Kryptopterus cryptopterus), and spotted catfish (Arius maculatus).  Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) were being analysed in the gills, livers, and the muscles of the fish.  The results showed that Pb and Cd were still low and fulfilled the the quality standard based on Indonesian National Standards Agency (INSA, 2009) and Directorate of Drug and Food Control No. 03725/B/SK/VII/89.  Cadmium concentration in the fish organ was < 0.003 mg/kg (Max. limit of Quality standard is 0.1 mg/kg) and Pb concentration was <0.002 mg/kg (Quality standard is 0.3 mg/kg).  Yet, Cu and Zn concentrations were exceeded the Quality standard as the levels were 2.63-2.93 mg/kg and 60.23 -65.55 mg/kg., respectively.  Based on Histopathological analysis of the gills, livers and muscles, the fish experienced edema, hyperplasia, vacuolar degenerative, necrosis and hemorrhagic ..


freshwater fish, heavy metals, histopathology, Payau River

Full Text:



Annabi, A.,Said, K & Messaori, I. 2013. Cadmium: Bioaccumulation, histopathology and detoxifying mechanisms in fish. American Journal of Research Communication, 4(1), 60-79

Authman, M. M. (2015). Use of Fish as Bio-indicator of the Effects of Heavy Metals Pollution. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development, 06(04). https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9546.1000328

Mohammed S. Y, Omer F. I, Sabahelkhier M.K, Abd El-Halim, M. I. (2016). Effect of Some Heavy Metal on Histological Structural of Gills and Liver of Rabbit Fish (Siganus rivulatus) from Two Sites Along Red Sea Coast, SUDAN. International Journal of Advanced Research, 4(6), 1040–1050. https://doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01

Baker J.T.P. 1969. Histological and electron microscopical observations on copper poisoning in the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 26:2785-2793.

Boudou, A., D.G Scauld & I.D. Desmazes. 1983. Ecotoxicological role of the membrane barrier’s in Transport and Bioaccumulation of Mercury compound in J.ONriagu (ed). Aquatic Toxicology, Wiley Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Directorate Generale of Drug and Food Control Indonesian Republic. 1989. Maximum level pollutants of metals in food consumption.

Fernandes, 2007. Histopathological Changes in Liver and Gill epithelium of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to Waterborne Copper. Depto Engeharia Biological.

Heidel, J. and C. Smith. 2007. General Histopathology and Neoplasia. Fish Histology manual. V4

Indonesian National Standards Agency. 2009. SNI 7387-2009. Maximum Level pollutants of Heavy metal in Food

Kock, G, Triedl M & Hofer. R. 1996. Seasonal Pattern of Metal Accumulation In Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an oligotrophic Alpine lake relate to temperature. Can. J.Fish. Aqat. Sci. 53 : 780-786.

Morison, J. 2007. Normal Histology. Fish Histology manual.V4.

Munford, S. 2007. Submitting samples and Tissue Processing. Fish Histology and Histopathology.

Osman, A.G.M.,Reheem, A.E., Baset, M.A.E., AbuellFadly, K.Y & Rab, A.G.G. 2010. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers as indicators of aquatic pollution in fish. Natural Science, 2(1), 1302-1311

Padrilah, S.N., M.K Sabullah., M.Y.A Sukhor., N. Adeela Y.,N.A. Shamaan and S. Aqlima Ahmad. 2018. Toxicity Effects of Fish Histopathology on Copper Accumulation. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 41 (2): 519 – 540

Patricia, E.Levi., Ernest Hodgson. 2000. A Texbook of Modern Toxicology. North Carolina State University.

Pelgrom, S., Lamers, L., Lock, R. Balm. P and Wendelaar Bonga s. 1995. Integrated Physiological Response of Tilapia Oreochromis mosambicus, to sublethal Copper Exposure. Aquatic. Toxicol. Sci.42, 630 – 648.

Rajkowska, M and Protasowicki,M. 2013. Distribution of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) in fish tissues in two lakes of different trophic in Northwestern. Polland. Environmental monitoring and Assesment, 185 (4), 3493 – 3502.

Robert, R.j. 2012. Fish Pathology th.ed. Bailierre Tindall.

Rocha & Monteiro RAF. 1999. Histology and Cytology of Fish Liver. Areview, p 321-344 In: Saksena DN (ed) Ichthyology. Recent Research Advances Science Publisher, Enfield, New Hampshire.

Sabullah, M.K.,Ahmad, S.A., Shukor, M.Y.,Gansau. A.J. Syed., M.A., Sulaiman. M.R & Shamaan, N.A. 2015. Heavy metals biomarker. Fish behaviour cellular alteration, enzymatic reaction and proteomic approaches. International Food Research Journal, 22(2). 435 - 454

Suyatna. I, Sulistyawati, Adnan, Ghitarina, M. Sahrir, Abdunnur and Sahrul. 2017. Heavy metal level in water and fish samples from coastal waters of Mahakam Delta, Kutai Kartanegara District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. AACL.Bioflux. 2017 Vol. 10

Takashima dan Hibiya. 1995. An Atlas of Fish Histology. Kodansha Ltd. Tokyo

WHO. 1998. Copper Environmental Health Criteria 200. IPCS- International Program on Chemical Safety. World Health Organization, Geneva.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20527/jwem.v8i2.217


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License 
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ISSN: 2354-5844 (print version) and 2477-5223 (electronic version). joomla site stats View My Stats