Selection Of Municipal Wastewater Reuse Technology For Agricultural Water By Using Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA): The Case Of Walcheren Wastewater Treatment Plant, The Netherlands

Ni Nyoman Nepi Marleni, Ristie Ermawati, Nitis Aruming Firdaus

Abstract


The water demands for agricultural purposes are increasing along with the population growth. Unfortunately, the water source is not sufficiently available nowadays. Furthermore, the quality of available water is more deteriorated due to the contamination from many sources such as households, industrial areas and other activities. Water board Scheldestromen handles 16 wastewater treatment plants located in Province of Zeeland in The Netherlands. The total production of treated effluent water from 16 wastewater treatment plants is 50 million annually. Quality of the effluent is relatively good, however, some potential risks related to the number of pathogenic microorganism and some trace metals are still there. The treated effluent is mostly discharged to river near to the treatment plant. The high amount of effluent discharge would potentially to be re-used for fulfill the demand for agricultural water. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the feasibility of treated effluent from one of Walcheren wastewater treatment plants located in Ritthem, Province of Zeeland.This study uses the method of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) for looking the best way to re-use the effluent for agricultural purposes. The MCA questionnaire was developed based on the thorough literature review of effluent reuse. There are 6 criteria that need to be weighted and 6 scenario alternatives that need to be scored for the MCA questionnaire. The result show that the effluent water contained pathogenic bacteria (E.Coli) and some trace metals (Ni and Cu) more than suggested by FAO standard. Hence the most preferred technology is combination between closed conduits and UV system, with weighted score 0.78 while others had less weighted score compared to the selected one

Keywords


Agricultural, MCA, Wastewater

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ayers, R., & Westcot, D. (1994). Water quality for agriculture (1 ed.). Rome: FAO.

Carriço, N., Gonçalves, F. V., Covas, D., Almeida, M. d., & Alegre, H. (2014). Multi-criteria analysis for the selection of the best energy efficient. Procedia Engineering, 70, 292-301.

Chang, H. (2008, July). Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Research, 42(13), 3285-3304.

Department, N. R. (1992). Wastewater treatment. In FAO, Wastewater Treatment and use in agriculture - FAO irrigation and drainage paper 47. Rome: FAO.

Fu, F., & Wang, Q. (2011, March). Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters : A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(3), 407-418.

Hadipour, A., Rajaee, T., Hadipour, V., & Seidirad, S. (2016). Multi-criteria decision-making model for waastewater reuse application: a case study from Iran. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(30), 13857-13864.

Kalavrouziotis, I. K., Filintas, A. T., Koukoulakis, P. H., & Hatzopoulos, J. N. (2011). Application of multicriteria analysis in the management and planning of treated municipal wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture and land development : The case of Spati's wastewater treatment plant, Greece. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 20(2), 287-295.

London, D. f. (2009). Multi criteria analysis : a manual (Vol. 1). London: Department for Communities and Local Government : London.

Müller-Steinhagen, H., & Branch, C. (1988). Comparison of indices for the scaling and corrosiontendency of water. The canadian Journal of chemical Engineering, 66(6), 1005-1007.

Nieuwlands, J. (2017, November). Effluent Reuse. Vlissingen, Zeeland, Netherlands: Water Board Scheldestromen.

Parker, J., & Darby, J. (1995). Particle-associated coliform in secondary effluents: shielding from ultraviolet light disinfection. Water Environment Research, 67(7), 1065-1075.

Scheldestromen, W. B. (2017, November). Walcheren wastewater treatment plant. Ritthem, Zeeland, Netherlands: Water Board Scheldestromen.

Stott, R., & Tanner, C. (2005). Influence of biofilm on removal of surrogate faecal microbes in a constructed wetland and maturation pond. Water Science & Technology, 51(9), 315-322.

Tao, F., Yokozawa, M., Hayashi, Y., & Lin, E. (2003, April). Future climate change, the agricultural water cycle, and agricultural production in China. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment, 95(1), 203-215.

Wallace, J. (2000, December). Increasing agricultural water use efficiency to meet future food production. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment, 82(1 - 3), 105-119.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20527/jwem.v8i1.207

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.






Creative Commons License 
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ISSN: 2354-5844 (print version) and 2477-5223 (electronic version). joomla site stats View My Stats